Writing More Advanced JMS Applications
Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) 8
The Java EE Tutorial

Previous Next Contents

Writing More Advanced JMS Applications

The following examples show how to use some of the more advanced features of the JMS API: durable subscriptions and transactions.

The following topics are addressed here:

Using Durable Subscriptions

The durablesubscriptionexample example shows how unshared durable subscriptions work. It demonstrates that a durable subscription continues to exist and accumulate messages even when there is no active consumer on it.

The example consists of two modules, a durableconsumer application that creates a durable subscription and consumes messages, and an unsubscriber application that enables you to unsubscribe from the durable subscription after you have finished running the durableconsumer application.

For information on durable subscriptions, see Creating Durable Subscriptions.

The main client, DurableConsumer.java, is under the _tut-install_/examples/jms/durablesubscriptionexample/durableconsumer/ directory.

The example uses a connection factory, jms/DurableConnectionFactory, that has a client ID.

The DurableConsumer client creates a JMSContext using the connection factory. It then stops the JMSContext, calls createDurableConsumer to create a durable subscription and a consumer on the topic by specifying a subscription name, registers a message listener, and starts the JMSContext again. The subscription is created only if it does not already exist, so the example can be run repeatedly:

try (JMSContext context = durableConnectionFactory.createContext();) {
    context.stop();
    consumer = context.createDurableConsumer(topic, "MakeItLast");
    listener = new TextListener();
    consumer.setMessageListener(listener);
    context.start();
    ...

To send messages to the topic, you run the producer client.

The unsubscriber example contains a very simple Unsubscriber client, which creates a JMSContext on the same connection factory and then calls the unsubscribe method, specifying the subscription name:

try (JMSContext context = durableConnectionFactory.createContext();) {
    System.out.println("Unsubscribing from durable subscription");
    context.unsubscribe("MakeItLast");
} ...

To Create Resources for the Durable Subscription Example

  1. Make sure that GlassFish Server has been started (see Starting and Stopping GlassFish Server).

  2. In a command window, go to the durableconsumer example.

    cd tut-install/jms/durablesubscriptionexample/durableconsumer
  3. Create the resources using the asadmin add-resources command:

    asadmin add-resources src/main/setup/glassfish-resources.xml

    The command output reports the creation of a connector connection pool and a connector resource.

  4. Verify the creation of the resources:

    asadmin list-jms-resources

    In addition to the resources you created for the simple examples, the command lists the new connection factory:

    jms/MyQueue
    jms/MyTopic
    jms/__defaultConnectionFactory
    jms/DurableConnectionFactory
    Command list-jms-resources executed successfully.

To Run the Durable Subscription Example

  1. In a terminal window, go to the following directory:

    tut-install/examples/jms/durablesubscriptionexample/
  2. Build the durableconsumer and unsubscriber examples:

    mvn install
  3. Go to the durableconsumer directory:

    cd durableconsumer
  4. To run the client, enter the following command:

    appclient -client target/durableconsumer.jar

    The client creates the durable consumer and then waits for messages:

    Creating consumer for topic
    Starting consumer
    To end program, enter Q or q, then <return>
  5. In another terminal window, run the Producer client, sending some messages to the topic:

    cd tut-install/examples/jms/simple/producer
    appclient -client target/producer.jar topic 3
  6. After the DurableConsumer client receives the messages, enter q or Q to exit the program. At this point, the client has behaved like any other asynchronous consumer.

  7. Now, while the DurableConsumer client is not running, use the Producer client to send more messages:

    appclient -client target/producer.jar topic 2

    If a durable subscription did not exist, these messages would be lost, because no consumer on the topic is currently running. However, the durable subscription is still active, and it retains the messages.

  8. Run the DurableConsumer client again. It immediately receives the messages that were sent while it was inactive:

    Creating consumer for topic
    Starting consumer
    To end program, enter Q or q, then <return>
    Reading message: This is message 1 from producer
    Reading message: This is message 2 from producer
    Message is not a TextMessage
  9. Enter q or Q to exit the program.

To Run the unsubscriber Example

After you have finished running the DurableConsumer client, run the unsubscriber example to unsubscribe from the durable subscription.

  1. In a terminal window, go to the following directory:

    tut-install/examples/jms/durablesubscriptionexample/unsubscriber
  2. To run the Unsubscriber client, enter the following command:

    appclient -client target/unsubscriber.jar

    The client reports that it is unsubscribing from the durable subscription.

Using Local Transactions

The transactedexample example demonstrates the use of local transactions in a JMS client application. It also demonstrates the use of the request/reply messaging pattern described in Creating Temporary Destinations, although it uses permanent rather than temporary destinations. The example consists of three modules, genericsupplier, retailer, and vendor, which can be found under the tut-install`/examples/jms/transactedexample/` directory. The source code can be found in the src/main/java/javaeetutorial trees for each module. The genericsupplier and retailer modules each contain a single class, genericsupplier/GenericSupplier.java and retailer/Retailer.java, respectively. The vendor module is more complex, containing four classes: vendor/Vendor.java, vendor/VendorMessageListener.java, vendor/Order.java, and vendor/SampleUtilities.java.

The example shows how to use a queue and a topic in a single transaction as well as how to pass a JMSContext to a message listener’s constructor function. The example represents a highly simplified e-commerce application in which the following actions occur.

  1. A retailer (retailer/src/main/java/javaeetutorial/retailer/Retailer.java) sends a MapMessage to a vendor order queue, ordering a quantity of computers, and waits for the vendor’s reply:

    outMessage = context.createMapMessage();
    outMessage.setString("Item", "Computer(s)");
    outMessage.setInt("Quantity", quantity);
    outMessage.setJMSReplyTo(retailerConfirmQueue);
    context.createProducer().send(vendorOrderQueue, outMessage);
    System.out.println("Retailer: ordered " + quantity + " computer(s)");
    orderConfirmReceiver = context.createConsumer(retailerConfirmQueue);
  2. The vendor (vendor/src/main/java/javaeetutorial/retailer/Vendor.java) receives the retailer’s order message and sends an order message to the supplier order topic in one transaction. This JMS transaction uses a single session, so you can combine a receive from a queue with a send to a topic. Here is the code that uses the same session to create a consumer for a queue:

    vendorOrderReceiver = session.createConsumer(vendorOrderQueue);

    The following code receives the incoming message, sends an outgoing message, and commits the JMSContext. The message processing has been removed to keep the sequence simple:

    inMessage = vendorOrderReceiver.receive();
    // Process the incoming message and format the outgoing
    // message
    ...
    context.createProducer().send(supplierOrderTopic, orderMessage);
    ...
    context.commit();

    For simplicity, there are only two suppliers, one for CPUs and one for hard drives.

  3. Each supplier (genericsupplier/src/main/java/javaeetutorial/retailer/GenericSupplier.java) receives the order from the order topic, checks its inventory, and then sends the items ordered to the queue named in the order message’s JMSReplyTo field. If it does not have enough of the item in stock, the supplier sends what it has. The synchronous receive from the topic and the send to the queue take place in one JMS transaction:

    receiver = context.createConsumer(SupplierOrderTopic);
    ...
    inMessage = receiver.receive();
    if (inMessage instanceof MapMessage) {
        orderMessage = (MapMessage) inMessage;
    } ...
    // Process message
    outMessage = context.createMapMessage();
    // Add content to message
    context.createProducer().send(
             (Queue) orderMessage.getJMSReplyTo(),
             outMessage);
    // Display message contents
    context.commit();
  4. The vendor receives the suppliers' replies from its confirmation queue and updates the state of the order. Messages are processed by an asynchronous message listener, VendorMessageListener; this step shows the use of JMS transactions with a message listener:

    MapMessage component = (MapMessage) message;
    ...
    int orderNumber = component.getInt("VendorOrderNumber");
    Order order = Order.getOrder(orderNumber).processSubOrder(component);
    context.commit();
  5. When all outstanding replies are processed for a given order, the vendor message listener sends a message notifying the retailer whether it can fulfill the order:

    Queue replyQueue = (Queue) order.order.getJMSReplyTo();
    MapMessage retailerConfirmMessage = context.createMapMessage();
    // Format the message
    context.createProducer().send(replyQueue, retailerConfirmMessage);
    context.commit();
  6. The retailer receives the message from the vendor:

    inMessage = (MapMessage) orderConfirmReceiver.receive();

    The retailer then places a second order for twice as many computers as in the first order, so these steps are executed twice.

Figure 49-1 illustrates these steps.

Figure 49-1 Transactions: JMS Client Example

Diagram of steps in transaction example

All the messages use the MapMessage message type. Synchronous receives are used for all message reception except when the vendor processes the replies of the suppliers. These replies are processed asynchronously and demonstrate how to use transactions within a message listener.

At random intervals, the Vendor client throws an exception to simulate a database problem and cause a rollback.

All clients except Retailer use transacted contexts.

The example uses three queues named jms/AQueue, jms/BQueue, and jms/CQueue, and one topic named jms/OTopic.

To Create Resources for the transactedexample Example

  1. Make sure that GlassFish Server has been started (see Starting and Stopping GlassFish Server).

  2. In a command window, go to the genericsupplier example:

    cd tut-install/jms/transactedexample/genericsupplier
  3. Create the resources using the asadmin add-resources command:

    asadmin add-resources src/main/setup/glassfish-resources.xml
  4. Verify the creation of the resources:

    asadmin list-jms-resources

    In addition to the resources you created for the simple examples and the durable subscription example, the command lists the four new destinations:

    jms/MyQueue
    jms/MyTopic
    jms/AQueue
    jms/BQueue
    jms/CQueue
    jms/OTopic
    jms/__defaultConnectionFactory
    jms/DurableConnectionFactory
    Command list-jms-resources executed successfully.

To Run the transactedexample Clients

You will need four terminal windows to run the clients. Make sure that you start the clients in the correct order.

  1. In a terminal window, go to the following directory:

    tut-install/examples/jms/transactedexample/
  2. To build and package all the modules, enter the following command:

    mvn install
  3. Go to the genericsupplier directory:

    cd genericsupplier
  4. Use the following command to start the CPU supplier client:

    appclient -client target\genericsupplier.jar CPU

    After some initial output, the client reports the following:

    Starting CPU supplier
  5. In a second terminal window, go to the genericsupplier directory:

    cd tut-install/examples/jms/transactedexample/genericsupplier
  6. Use the following command to start the hard drive supplier client:

    appclient -client target\genericsupplier.jar HD

    After some initial output, the client reports the following:

    Starting Hard Drive supplier
  7. In a third terminal window, go to the vendor directory:

    cd tut-install/examples/jms/transactedexample/vendor
  8. Use the following command to start the Vendor client:

    appclient -client target\vendor.jar

    After some initial output, the client reports the following:

    Starting vendor
  9. In another terminal window, go to the retailer directory:

    cd tut-install/examples/jms/transactedexample/retailer
  10. Use a command like the following to run the Retailer client. The argument specifies the number of computers to order:

    appclient -client target/retailer.jar 4

    After some initial output, the Retailer client reports something like the following. In this case, the first order is filled, but the second is not:

    Retailer: Quantity to be ordered is 4
    Retailer: Ordered 4 computer(s)
    Retailer: Order filled
    Retailer: Placing another order
    Retailer: Ordered 8 computer(s)
    Retailer: Order not filled

    The Vendor client reports something like the following, stating in this case that it is able to send all the computers in the first order, but not in the second:

    Vendor: Retailer ordered 4 Computer(s)
    Vendor: Ordered 4 CPU(s) and hard drive(s)
      Vendor: Committed transaction 1
    Vendor: Completed processing for order 1
    Vendor: Sent 4 computer(s)
      Vendor: committed transaction 2
    Vendor: Retailer ordered 8 Computer(s)
    Vendor: Ordered 8 CPU(s) and hard drive(s)
      Vendor: Committed transaction 1
    Vendor: Completed processing for order 2
    Vendor: Unable to send 8 computer(s)
      Vendor: Committed transaction 2

    The CPU supplier reports something like the following. In this case, it is able to send all the CPUs for both orders:

    CPU Supplier: Vendor ordered 4 CPU(s)
    CPU Supplier: Sent 4 CPU(s)
      CPU Supplier: Committed transaction
    CPU Supplier: Vendor ordered 8 CPU(s)
    CPU Supplier: Sent 8 CPU(s)
      CPU Supplier: Committed transaction

    The hard drive supplier reports something like the following. In this case, it has a shortage of hard drives for the second order:

    Hard Drive Supplier: Vendor ordered 4 Hard Drive(s)
    Hard Drive Supplier: Sent 4 Hard Drive(s)
      Hard Drive Supplier: Committed transaction
    Hard Drive Supplier: Vendor ordered 8 Hard Drive(s)
    Hard Drive Supplier: Sent 1 Hard Drive(s)
      Hard Drive Supplier: Committed transaction
  11. Repeat steps 4 through 10 as many times as you wish. Occasionally, the vendor will report an exception that causes a rollback:

    Vendor: JMSException occurred: javax.jms.JMSException: Simulated
    database concurrent access exception
      Vendor: Rolled back transaction 1
  12. After you finish running the clients, you can delete the destination resources by using the following commands:

    asadmin delete-jms-resource jms/AQueue
    asadmin delete-jms-resource jms/BQueue
    asadmin delete-jms-resource jms/CQueue
    asadmin delete-jms-resource jms/OTopic

Previous Next Contents
Oracle Logo  Copyright © 2017, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.